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Table 1 Studies reporting hepatitis B and C in Nepal

From: Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in Nepal: a systematic review (1973–2017)

SN YEAR POPULATION, SITE, TIME SAMPLE SIZE, N ANTI-HIV(%) HBV ANTI-HCV NOTES AUTHOR(S)
HBSAG(%) ANTI-HBC(%) ANTI-HBS(%)
1 1973 Patients attending hospitals in Kathmandu during infectious hepatitis outbreak, January 1973 to October 1973 53 sera samples 0 (0.00) Hillis A et al. [6]
2 1984 Hospitalized patients with jaundice referred to Shree Tribhubn Chandra Military Hospital, Kathmandu and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, 1981 to 1982 41 patients 6 (7.50) Kane MA et al. [28]
Outpatients referred to Shree Tribhubn Chandra Military Hospital, Kathmandu and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, 1981 to 1982 39 patients
3 1987 Children age 0–10 years, Surkhet Valley 45 childrena (6.6) (22.2) Shreshta SM. [72]
Children, teenagers and adults age 11–20 years, Surkhet Valley 65 children, teenager and adultsa (3.0) (46.6)
Adults age 21–40 years, Surkhet Valley 82 adultsa (9.7) (44.0)
Adults 41+ years, Surkhet Valley 33 adultsa (6.0) (25.0)
Girls and women, 0–41+ years, Surkhet Valley (9.8)  
Boys and men, 0–41+ years, Surkhet Valley (4.4)
General population age 0–41+, Surkhet Valley 225 peoplea (6.6) (35.0)
4 1987 Tibetan children age 0–9 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 34 children (20.0) (32.0)a Shrestha SM. [30]
Tibetan children, teenagers and adults age 10–19 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 79 children, teenagers and adults (10.0) (39.0)a
Tibetan adults age 20–29 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 106 adults (18.0) (55.0)a
Tibetan adults age 30–39 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 61 adults (20.0) (46.0)a
Tibetans age 40–49 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 95 adults (15.0) (36.0)a
Tibetans age 0–49 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 375 people (16.0) (45.0)a
Nepalese children age 0–9 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 113 children (0.0) (3.5)a
Nepalese children, teenagers and adults age 10–19 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 198 children, teenagers and adults (0.5) (5.0)a
Nepalese adults age 20–29 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 110 adults (1.8) (5.4)a
Nepalese adults age 30–39 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 49 adults (0.0) (32.6)a
Nepalese adults age 40–49 years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 25 adults (0.0) (16.0)a
Nepalese adults age 50+ years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 45 adults (2.2) (7.8)a
Nepalese age 11–41+ years, Hemza, Tashi Ling, Pokhara; Jawalkhel, Kathmandu Valley 540 people (0.7) (36.0)a   
5 1988 Patients during 1983 enterically transmitted non A–non B hepatitis outbreak, Kathmandu Valley 150 patients 34 (13.60)a Nuti M [10]
Controls during 1983 non A–non B hepatitis outbreak, Kathmandu Valley 100 people
6 1988 Lactating women from six villages of Kathmandu Valley 26 women 0 (0.00) 4 (15.38) 8 (30.77) Reynolds RD et al. [73]
Breastfed infants age 2–6 months from six villages of Kathmandu Valley 26 infants
7 1989 Patients age 20–40 years attending four Kathmandu hospitals, Kathmandu, 1985 460 sera samples 0 (0.00) 5 (1.09) 64 (13.91) Mertens T et al. [74]
8 1990 Children age 0–5 years 57 healthy children 0 (0.00) 5 (8.77) Shrestha SM [75]
Children and teenagers age 6–15 years 359 healthy children ad teenagers 8 (2.23) 15 (4.18)
Teenagers and adults age 16–41 years 1788 healthy teenagers and adults 16 (0.89) 158 (8.84)
Adults, 41+ years 351 healthy adults 2 (0.57) 35 (9.97)
Girls and women, 0–41+ years 1529 healthy women 9 (0.59) 76 (7.40)
Boys and men, 0–41+ years 1026 healthy men 17 (1.65) 138 (9.02)
General population, 0–41+ years 2555 healthy individuals 26 (1.02) 23 (0.90) 214 (8.4)
9 1991 Spouses of HBsAg chronic carriers 34 people 6 (17.65) 15 (44.12) Shrestha SM et al. [29]
Offspring of HBsAg chronic carriers 73 people 15 (20.55) 17 (23.29)
Siblings of HBsAg chronic carriers 29 people 9 (31.03) 11 (37.93)
10 1993 Children age 0–4 years, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 177 children 64 (19.28) 161 (17.05) 213 (22.56) Goh et al. [32]
Children age 5–14 years, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 155 children  
Children and adults age 15–24 years, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 227 children and adults
Adults age 25–34 years, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 289 people
Adults 35+ years, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 96 people
Gurkha Community members, Gurkha Contingent, Singapore 944 people 26 (2.75)
11 1994 Patients with chronic hepatitis attending Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 20 patients 12 (60.00) 5 (25.00) Shreshta SM et al. [26]
Patients with cirrhosis attending Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 63 patients 25 (39.68) 9 (14.28)
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma attending Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 62 patients 20 (29.41) 6 (9.68)
Patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma attending Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 145 patients 57 (39.31) 20 (13.79)
Pregnant women attending Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 83 women 0 (0.00) 3 (3.61)
Medical or paramedical personnel serving at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu 296 people 5 (1.69) 10 (3.38)
12 1994 Female sex workers, Kathmandu Valley 341 women 3 (0.88) 37 (10.85)a Syphilis: 73 (21.41) Bhatta P et al. [76]
13 1994 Villagers, Dharan, Sunsari; Pancha Kanya Village Development Committee, Ilam; Dhankuta Hile, Dhankuta; Basantapur Village Development Committee, Tehrathm 303 serum samples 0 (0.00) 6 (1.98) Rai SK et al. [77]
14 1995 Villagers, Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, 1987 676 blood samples 2 (0.29) 52 (7.69) 1 (0.15) Nakashima K et al. [78]
15 1996 People who inject drugs 72 people 4 (5.55) 59 (81.94) 58 (80.55) Shrestha SM et al. [25]
16 1997 People who use drugs 72 people 2 (2.78) 44 (61.11)b 43 (59,72) Shrestha SM et al. [16]
People with chronic kidney disease 41 people 1 (2.44) 6 (14.63)b 1 (2.44)
People with chronic liver disease 145 people 57 (39.31) 74 (51.03)b 12 (8.27)
HBsAg carriers 49 people 49 (100.00) 49 (100.00)b 0 (0.00)
Healthy individuals undergoing routine check-ups 181 people 9 (4.97) 46 (25.41)b 0 (0.00)
17 1998 Patients age ≤ 15 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 101 children and adults 0/9 (0.00) 1/9 (11.11) 0/9 (0.00) De Bruyn et al. [44]
Patients age 16–25 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 0/34 (0.00) 0/34 (0.00) 4/34 (11.76)
Patients age 26–35 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 1/20 (5.00) 0/21 (0.00) 0/21 (0.00)
Patients age 36–45 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 2/14 (14.28) 2/13 (15.38) 0/13 (0.00)
Patients age 46–55 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 1/8 (12.50) 1/8 (12.50) 0/8 (0.00)
Patients age ≥ 56 years attending Amp Pipal Hospital, Gorkha district, 1993 3/10 (30.00) 4/10 (40.00) 0/10 (0.00)
18 1999 Male villagers age ≤ 24 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 44 boys and men 0 (0.00) 1 (2.27) 1 (2.27) Sawayama Y et al. [40]
Female villagers age ≤ 24 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 43 girls and women 1 (2.32) 1 (2.32) 0 (0.00)
Villagers age ≤ 24 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 87 people 1 (1.15) 2 (2.30) 1 (1.15)
Male villagers 25–34 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 40 men 0 (0.00) 2 (5.00) 2 (5.00)
Female villagers 25–34 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 37 women 1 (2.70) 2 (5.40) 0 (0.00)
Villagers 25–34 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 77 people 1 (1.30) 4 (5.19) 2 (2.60)
Male villagers 35–44 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 49 men 0 (0.00) 1 (2.04) 1 (2.04)
Female villagers 35–44 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 41 women 0 (0.00) 1 (2.44) 0 (0.00)
Villagers 35–44 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 90 people 0 (0.00) 2 (2.22) 1 (1.11)
Male villagers 45–54 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 29 men 0 (0.00) 1 (3.45) 2 (6.90)
Female villagers 45–54 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 44 women 0 (0.00) 2 (4.54) 1 (2.27)
Villagers 45–54 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 73 people 0 (0.00) 3 (4.11) 3 (4.11)
Male villagers 55–64 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 29 men 1 (3.45) 5 (17.24) 0 (0.00)
Female villagers 55–64 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 39 women 2 (5.13) 6 (15.38) 1 (2.56)
Villagers 55–64 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 68 people 3 (4.41) 11 (16.18) 1 (1.47)
Male villagers ≥65 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 38 men 0 (0.00) 7 (18.42) 0 (0.00)
Female villagers ≥65 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 25 women 0 (0.00) 4 (16.00) 0 (0.00)
Villagers ≥65 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 63 people 0 (0.00) 11 (17.46) 0 (0.00)
Female villagers age 15–90 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 229 women 4 (1.75) 16 (6.97) 2 (0.87)
Male villagers age 15–90 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 229 men 1 (0.44) 17 (7.42) 6 (2.62)
Villagers age 15–90 years from Bhadrakali and Kotyang villages, August 1996 to September 1996 458 people 5 (1.09) 33 (7.20) 8 (1.75)
19 2000 Healthy Nepalese Men from Eastern development region, October 1996 to March 1997 100 men 2 (2.00) Manandhar K et al. [79, 80]
Healthy Nepalese Men from Central development region, October 1996 to March 1997 100 men 3 (3.00)
Healthy Nepalese Men from Western development region, October 1996 to March 1997 100 men 4 (4.00)
Healthy Nepalese Men from Mid Western development region, October 1996 to March 1997 97 men 4 (4.12)
Healthy Nepalese Men from Far Western development region, October 1996 to March 1997 81 men 5 (6.17)
Healthy Nepalese Men from five different development regions, October 1996 to March 1997 478 men 18 (3.76) 17 < 40 yrs. old -
20 2002 Nepalese men age 16–50 years who required medical check-ups for employment abroad, July 1999 to September 1999 2585 men 24 (0.93) Bidya S [81]
21 2003 Boys and men < 19 years, Baba Medical Center, Kathmandu, September 2003 to June 2004 52 boys and men 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Joshi SK et al. [34]
Men age 20–29 years, Baba Medical Center, Kathmandu, September 2003 to June 2004 375 men 5 (1.33) 9 (2.40) Syphilis: 4/545
Men age 30–39 years, Baba Medical Center, Kathmandu, September 2003 to June 2004 170 men 5 (2.94) 7 (4.11)
Men age 40+ years, Baba Medical Center, Kathmandu, September 2003 to June 2004 30 men 1 (3.33)
22 2003 People who inject drugs, Siddhi Polyclinic, Dillibazaar, Kathmandu 400 people 342 (85.5) Shrestha IL [38]
Adults without history of injection drug use, Siddhi Polyclinic, Dillibazaar, Kathmandu 400 people 3 (0.75)
23 2003 Candidates for blood donation at Blood Bank Centre, NRCS, Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, February 2001 to April 2003 1548 samples 2 (0.13) 7 (0.45) 2 (0.13) Chander A et al. [18]
24 2004 Sherpa people age 15–66 years, Lukla, Solukhumbu district, 2004 103 people 2 (1.94) 25 (24.27) 23 (22.33) Chiba H et al. [82]
25 2005 Bhutanese refugees, Beldangi 2 Extension Camp, March 1998 to July 1998 467 people 4 (0.86) Shah BK et al. [83]
26 2006 Healthcare workers of Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, December 2001 to February 2002 145 people 2 (1.38) 21 (14.48) Shrestha SK et al. [68]
27 2006 Male villagers, migrant-returnes from India and non-migrants, from five village development committees, Doti District, April 2001 149 people 1 (0.67) 16 (10.74) Poudel K et al. [31]
28 2007 Patients with liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma attending Liver Foundation Nepal clinic, January 1998 to January 2004 121 patients 48 (39.67) 85 (70.25) 15 (12.40) Shrestha SM et al. [27]
Patients with liver cirrhosis attending Liver Foundation Nepal clinic, January 1998 to January 2004 70 patients 20 (28.57) 47 (67.14) 6 (8.57)
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma attending Liver Foundation Nepal clinic, January 1998 to January 2004 51 patients 28 (54.90) 38 (74.51) 9 (17.65)
29 2008 Symptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, March 2004 to September 2005 54 patients PLWH 1 (1.85)a 1 (1.85) Dhungel BA et al. [11]
30 2008 Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2001 to 2002 72,459 blood samples 627 (0.86) 384 (0.52) Karki S et al. [19]
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2002 to 2003 73,758 blood samples 911 (1.23) 417 (0.56)
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2003 to 2004 76,647 blood samples 663 (0.86) 321 (0.41)
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2004 to 2005 82,677 blood samples 644 (0.77) 373 (0.45)
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2005 to 2006 103,067 blood samples 887 (0.86) 366 (0.35)
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2006 to 2007 115,720 blood samples 430 (0.37) 628 (0.54)
Candidates for blood donation, NRSC, CBTS, hospital units/mobile camps all over Nepal, 2001 to 2007 524,328 blood samples 4162 (0.82) 2489 (0.47)
31 2008 Sex trafficked women and girls assisted by Maiti Nepal, Kathmandu 246 women and girls 74 (30.08) 66/210 (31.43)a Syphilis: 48% Silverman J et al. [7]
32 2009 Candidates for blood donation at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS), Kathmandu, December 2006 to September 2007 33,255 individual samples 65 (0.19) Karki S et al. [12]
People living with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during blood donation at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, NRCS, Kathmandu, December 2006 to September 2007 65 individual samples tested positive for anti-HIV PLWH 7 (10.76)
33 2009 Pregnant women admitted in the ward of NMCTH, Kathmandu, 2001 to 2007 5602 18 (0.32)a Shreshta P et al. [84]
34 2009 People who inject drugs on Oral Substitution Therapy (OST), Kathmandu Valley, June 2009 118 people 95 (80.50) HEPA Foundation [85]
People who inject drugs, Kathmandu Valley, June 2009 82 people 47 (57.32)
35 2009 Male candidates for blood donation, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 18,434 blood samples of male candidates 25 (0.13) 92 (0.50) 128 (0.69) Coinfection HIV/HCV: 8/128 Shrestha AC et al. [20]
Female candidates for blood donation, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 3282 blood samples of female candidates 2 (0.06) 10 (0.30) 11 (0.33)
Candidates for blood donation age ≤ 20 years, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 3310 blood samples 2 (0.06) 7 (0.21) 7 (0.21)
Candidates for blood donation age 31–30 years, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 9818 blood samples 12 (0.12) 45 (0.45) 75 (0.76)
Candidates for blood donation age 31–40 years, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 5763 blood samples 10 (0.17) 29 (0.50) 42 (0.72)
Candidates for blood donation age 41–50 years, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 2433 blood sample 3 (0.12) 19 (0.78) 13 (0.53)
Candidates for blood donation age 51–60 years, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 392 blood samples 0 (0.00) 3 (0.51) 2 (0.51)
Candidates for blood donation, NRCS, Central Blood Transfusion Service (CBTS), Kathmandu, March 2008 to September 2008 21,716 blood samples 27 (0.12) 102 (0.46) 139 (0.64)
36 2010 Candidates for blood donation in Banke blood transfusion service, July 2006 to June 2007 5211 63 (1.21)a 6 (0.11) Tiwari BR et al. [13]
Candidates for blood donation in Kaski blood transfusion service, July 2006 to June 2007 5995 21 (0.35)a 10 (0.17)
Candidates for blood donation in Morang blood transfusion service, July 2006 to June 2007 5351 47 (0.88)a 14 (0.26)
Candidates for blood donation in Banke, Kaski and Morang blood transfusion services, July 2006 to June 2007 16,557 131 (0.79)a 32 (0.19)
37 2011 People who inject drugs, age 18–40 years, 2011 40 people 7 (17.50) ANPUD. [86]
38 2012 Children age 10–12 years born from April 2000 to April 2002, before hepatitis B vaccine introduction, Kathmandu, April 2012 1200 children 3 (0.25) Upreti SR et al. [35]
Children age 5–6 years born from April 2006 to April 2007, after hepatitis B vaccine introduction, Kathmandu, April 2012 2187 children 3 (0.14)
39 2012 Patients with ascites attending Nepal Medical College Hospital (NMCTH), Kathmandu, September 2011 to February 2012 43 patients 2 (4.65) Adhikari P et al. [87]
40 2013 People with one or more risk behaviors attending National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL), Kathmandu, November 2011 to May 2012 678 people 105 (15.49) Ojha CR et al. [88]
People living with HIV/AIDS diagnosed among study population, November 2011 to May 2012 105 people PLWH 14 (13.33)
41 2014 People living with HIV/AIDS attending B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Dharan; Society for Positive Atmosphere and Related Support to HIV and IDS (SPARSHA), Kathmandu; Sukhra Raj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, Kathmandu, April 2010 to March 2011 108 patients PLWH 4 (3.70)a 3 (2.78) HBV/HCV: 0 (0.00) Barnawal SP et al. [15]
People who inject drugs living with HIV/AIDS attending BPKIHS, Dharan; SPARSHA, Kathmandu; Sukhra Raj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, Kathmandu, April 2010 to March 2011 205 patients PLWH 24 (11.71)a 137 (66.83) HBV/HCV: 10 (4.88)
42 2014 Women living with HIV/AIDS, 18 years or older, February to March 2010 136 women PLWH 9 (6.61) Poudel KC et al. [39]
Men living with HIV/AIDS, 18 years or older, February to March 2010 183 men PLWH 129 (70,49)
People who do not inject drugs living with HIV/AIDS, 18 years or older, February to March 2010 189 people PLWH 13 (6.88)
People who inject drugs living with HIV/AIDS, 18 years or older, February to March 2010 130 people PLWH 125 (95.15)
People living with HIV/AIDS, 18 years or older, February to March 2010 319 people PLWH 138 (43.26)
43 2014 Central Blood Transfusion Centre, 2012–2013 67,644 blood samples 45 (0.07) 150 (0.22) 317 (0.47) Syphilis: 394 (0.58) NRCS [21]
Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, 2012–2013 47,733 blood samples 40 (0.08) 188 (0.39) 126 (0.26) Syphilis: 284 (0.59)
District/Emergency Blood Transfusion Centre, 2012–2013 61,624 blood samples 35 (0.06) 195 (0.32) 121 (0.20) Syphilis: 118 (0.19)
Hospital Blood Transfusion Unit, 2012–2013 12,320 blood samples 3 (0.02) 32 (0.26) 21 (0.17) Syphilis: 8 (0.06)
Total, 2012–2013 189,321 blood samples 123 (0.06) 565 (0.30) 585 (0.31) Syphilis: 804 (0.42)
44 2014 Children age 0–15 years with acute hepatitis attending the liver clinic of Bir Hospital and Norvic International Hospital of Kathmandu, Kathmandu, January 2006 to December 2010 312 children 15 (4.81)a Sudhamshu KC et al. [14]
45 2015 Women who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Nepalgunj 3 women 0 (0.00) 0 (0.00) Kinkel HT et al. [8]
Men who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Nepalgunj 76 men 6 (7.89) 18 (23.68)
People who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Nepalgunj 79 people 6 (7.59) 18 (22.78)
Women who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services, Dharan; Biratnagar 69 women 9 (13.04) 3 (4.35) 17 (24.64)
Men who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services, Dharan; Biratnagar 72 men 12/70 (17.14) 5 (6.94) 50 (69.44)
People who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services, Dharan; Biratnagar 141 people 21/139 (15.11) 8 (5.67) 67 (47.52)
Women who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan 28 women 0 (0.00) 1 (3.57) 2 (7.14)
Men who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan 153 men 22/108 (20.37) 2 (1.31) 113 (73.86)
People who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan 181 people 22/136 (16.18) 3 (1.66) 115 (63.53)
Women who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services, Nepalgunj; Dharan; Biratnagar; Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan, 100 women 9 (9.00) 4 (4.00) 19 (19.00)
Men who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Nepalgunj; Dharan; Biratnagar; Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan, 301 men 40/254 (15.75) 10 (3.32) 181 (60.13)
People who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services submitted to HIV testing, Nepalgunj; Dharan; Biratnagar; Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan, 354 people 49 (13.84)
People who inject drugs attending Recovering Nepal services, Nepalgunj; Dharan; Biratnagar; Kathmandu; Lalitpur; Chitwan, 401 people 92/397 (23.17) 14 (3.49) 146 (43.89) 200 (49.87)
46 2015 Patients attending Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, 2008 to 2013 25,708 individual blood samples 218 (0.85) Supram HS et al. [89]
People living with HIV/AIDS at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, 2008 to 2013 218 individual blood samples PLWH 7 (3.21) 9 (4.13)
47 2015 Boys and men 15+ years who inject drugs, Sunsari, Morang and Jhapa districts, July 2015 360 boys and men 30 (8.33) 3 (0.83) 171 (47.50) Syphilis: 4 (1.11); Syphilis History: 8 (2.22) MoH/NCASC [90]
48 2015 Boys and men 16+ years who inject drugs, Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur districts, Kathmandu Valley, June 2015 to July 2015 340 boys and men 22 (6.47) 0 (0.00) 75 (22.06) Syphilis: 0 (0.00); Syphilis History: 0 (0.00) MoH/NCASC [91]
49 2015 Boys and men 16+ years who inject drugs, Pokhara Valley, June 2015 to July 2015 345 boys and men 10 (2.90) 6 (1.74) 45 (13.04) -STI: 4 (1.16) MoH/NCASC [92]
50 2015 People living with HIV/AIDS in Eastern Development Region, 140 people PLWH 5 (3.57) 67 (47.86) UNDP/DFID/CMDN [2, 93]
People living with HIV/AIDS in Central Development Region, 137 people PLWH 7 (5.11) 30 (21.90)
People living with HIV/AIDS in West Development Region, 203 people PLWH 13 (6.40) 20 (9.85)
People living with HIV/AIDS in Midwest Development Region, 51 people PLWH 0 (0.00) 12 (23.53)
People living with HIV/AIDS in Far West Development Region, 146 people PLWH 5 (3.42) 3 (2.05)
People living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, 677 people PLWH 30 (4.43) 132 (19.50)
People who inject drugs living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, 562 people PLWH 8 (1.42) 91 (16.19)
Sex workers living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, PLWH (0.1) 0 (0.00)
Migrant workers living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, PLWH (1.0) (1.8)
Gay, Lesbian and Transgender people living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, PLWH (0.4) (0.4)
Non most at risk population living with HIV/AIDS in all Development Regions, PLWH (1.3) (1.0)
51 2016 People who inject drugs with last 30-day frequent injection drug use attending rehabilitation centers, Kathmandu; Bhaktapur; Lalitupur; Sindupalchowk 167 people 20/87 (22.99) Loewinger G et al. [94]
52 2016 Girls and women 16+ years who inject drugs, Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur districts, Kathmandu Valley, April 2016 to July 2016 160 girls and women 14 (8.75) 3 (1.87) 34 (21.25) 12 (7.50) MoH/NCASC [95]
53 2016 Boys and men 15+ years who inject drugs, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Dang, Banke, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts 300 boys and men 7 (2.33) 5 (1.67) 24 (8.00) Syphilis: 1 (0.33); Syphilis History: 5 (1.67) MoH/NCASC [96]
54 2016 Patients who came in contact with HIV or other chronic liver disease and jaundice attending Teku Hospital, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, NRCS 2700 patients 100 (3.70) Nepal A et al. [97]
55 2016 Central Blood Transfusion Centre, 2014–2015 69,303 blood samples 21 (0.03) 192 (0.28) 224 (0.32) Syphilis: 360 (0.52) NRCS [22]
Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, 2014–2015 42,511 blood samples 13 (0.03) 151 (0.35) 56 (0.23) Syphilis: 115 (0.27)
District/Emergency Blood Transfusion Centre, 2014–2015 77,016 blood samples 27 (0.03) 227 (0.29) 119 (0.15) Syphilis: 260 (0.34)
Hospital Blood Transfusion unit, 2014–2015 28,324 blood samples 7 (0.02) 47 (0.16) 23 (0.08) Syphilis: 25 (0.09)
Total, 2014–2015 217,154 blood samples 68 (0.03) 617 (0.28) 422 (0.19) Syphilis: 760 (0.35)
  1. a: Study describes seroprevalence of active HBV infection. Test(s) used in the survey is(are) not specified
  2. b: Study describes seroprevalence of exposure to HBV. Test(s) used in the survey is (are) not specified