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Table 3 Results of the multinomial logistic regression analysis of factors associated with HCV monoinfection and HCV/HIV coinfection (final model comprising only the significant – p < 0.10 – variables from the previous model, n = 450)

From: HCV/HIV coinfection among people who inject drugs and enter opioid substitution treatment in Greece: prevalence and correlates

Correlate (vs. Reference category)   HCV monoinfecteda vs. Uninfectedc HCV/HIV coinfectedb vs. Uninfected  
p d RRRe 95 % CIf p RRR 95 % CI p
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Male (vs. Female)g 0.023 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.018 0.7 0.2 2.0 0.499
Aged ≥35 years (vs. Aged <35 years) 0.015 1.2 0.7 2.1 0.493 0.5 0.2 1.0 0.066
Lived in urban area in the last 5 years (vs. Lived in semi-urban/rural area) 0.006 1.4 0.8 2.6 0.255 4.8 1.7 13.7 0.004
Living alone or with a spouse/partner without children (vs. With familyh) 0.007 2.6 1.3 4.9 0.005 3.1 1.3 7.3 0.010
Incarcerated at least once in lifetime (vs. Never) 0.018 2.0 1.2 3.4 0.008 2.5 1.1 5.3 0.021
5–9 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year) 0.002 2.4 0.8 7.2 0.134 6.0 0.6 60.6 0.129
2–4 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year)   1.5 0.4 5.6 0.529 8.2 0.7 92.2 0.088
≥10 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year)   5.5 1.9 15.9 0.002 14.1 1.5 133.8 0.021
Injected on average 2–3 times per day in the past 30 days (vs. <2 times/day) 0.003 1.1 0.3 3.4 0.916 2.6 0.6 10.5 0.186
Injected on average >3 times per day in the past 30 days (vs. <2 times/day)   1.1 0.4 2.9 0.805 4.5 1.6 12.8 0.005
Shared syringes in the past 12 months (vs. No syringe sharing in the past 12 months) 0.002 2.5 1.2 5.2 0.014 4.7 1.9 11.5 0.001
No condom use in last intercourse (vs. Use of condom or non-active) 0.043 0.8 0.5 1.4 0.424 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.018
Never tested for HCV before (vs. Tested for HCV before) 0.001 0.6 0.3 0.9 0.028 0.2 0.1 0.5 <0.001
  1. aDiagnosed HCV positive and HIV negative. bDiagnosed HCV positive and HIV positive. cDiagnosed HCV negative and HIV negative. dOverall p-value for this covariate. eRRR: relative risk ratios. f95 % confidence intervals. gGender was measured by the following item: “What is your gender?” Response options included “male”, “female”, “other (transgender)”. No person responded “other” in the sample used in the present analysis. hIncludes children and / or parents