Skip to main content

Table 2 Results of univariate analysis of factors associated with HCV monoinfection and HCV/HIV coinfection

From: HCV/HIV coinfection among people who inject drugs and enter opioid substitution treatment in Greece: prevalence and correlates

   HCV monoinfecteda vs. Uninfectedc HCV/HIV coinfectedb vs. Uninfected  
p d RRRe 95 % CIf p RRR 95 % CI p n
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Male (vs. Female)g 0.164 0.6 0.3 1.1 0.083 0.8 0.4 1.8 0.589 541
Aged ≥35 years (vs. Aged <35 years) 0.015 1.4 0.9 2.2 0.114 0.7 0.4 1.3 0.265 541
Greek nationality (vs. Non-Greek nationality) 0.224 0.4 0.1 1.6 0.174 0.3 0.1 1.5 0.133 541
Lived in urban area in the past 5 years (vs. Lived in semi-urban/rural area) 0.019 1.1 0.7 1.9 0.701 3.0 1.2 7.4 0.016 522
Living alone or with spouse/partner without children (vs. With familyh) 0.012 2.0 1.2 3.3 0.007 2.3 1.2 4.3 0.013 541
Homeless ≥1 night in the past 12 months (vs. Never in the past 12 months) <0.001 1.5 0.9 2.4 0.119 3.7 2.0 6.9 <0.001 533
Did not graduate high school (12th grade) (vs. Graduated high school) 0.022 1.3 0.8 2.0 0.225 2.4 1.3 4.5 0.007 536
Unemployed / student / other (vs. Employed) 0.013 1.2 0.7 2.0 0.425 3.0 1.3 6.8 0.009 539
Economically inactivei (vs. Employed)   1.1 0.5 2.2 0.859 4.3 1.6 11.7 0.005  
Incarcerated at least once in lifetime (vs. Never) 0.001 2.2 1.4 3.4 <0.001 2.5 1.4 4.7 0.003 536
Use of primary substance ≥ 4 days a week (vs. <4 days a week) 0.086 0.7 0.4 1.2 0.203 1.4 0.6 3.2 0.454 540
Use of ≥3 substances of abuse (vs. Use of <3 substances of abuse)j 0.690 1.1 0.7 1.8 0.534 1.3 0.7 2.3 0.400 541
2–4 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year) <0.001 1.6 0.5 4.8 0.404 8.8 1.0 78.1 0.051 535
5–9 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year)   2.8 1.0 7.7 0.040 7.8 0.9 66.6 0.060  
≥10 years of injection (vs. 0–1 year)   6.1 2.4 15.1 <0.001 11.0 1.4 87.3 0.023  
Injected on average 2–3 times per day in the past 30 days (vs. <2 times/day) <0.001 0.7 0.3 1.7 0.472 2.2 0.8 6.1 0.128 529
Injected on average >3 times per day in the past 30 days (vs. <2 times/day)   1.1 0.5 2.4 0.824 5.0 2.1 11.7 <0.001  
Non-sterile syringe in last injection (vs. Sterile syringe in last injection) 0.149 1.6 0.6 4.3 0.342 2.9 0.9 8.9 0.062 519
Shared syringes in the past 12 months (vs. Never in the past 12 months) <0.001 1.7 0.9 3.1 0.080 4.5 2.2 9.1 <0.001 504
Shared other injection equipment in the past 12 months (vs. Never in the past 12 months) 0.024 1.0 0.6 1.6 0.989 2.0 1.1 3.6 0.026 506
Two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (vs. <2 sexual partners) 0.300 0.8 0.5 1.3 0.404 1.2 0.7 2.1 0.550 537
Sex in exchange for money etc. in the past 12 months (vs. Never in the past 12 months/non-active) 0.218 1.8 0.6 5.2 0.306 2.9 0.8 10.0 0.092 529
No condom use in last intercourse (vs. Use of condom use or non-active) 0.005 0.9 0.6 1.4 0.654 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.004 529
Ever entered treatment for drug-related problems before (vs. Never before) 0.275 1.4 0.9 2.2 0.157 1.0 0.6 1.9 0.874 536
Never tested for HCV before (vs. Tested for HCV before) <0.001 0.4 0.3 0.7 <0.001 0.1 0.1 0.3 <0.001 528
Never tested for HIV before (vs. Tested for HIV before) <0.001 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.001 0.2 0.1 0.4 <0.001 533
  1. aDiagnosed HCV positive and HIV negative. bDiagnosed HCV positive and HIV positive. cDiagnosed HCV negative and HIV negative.dOverall p-value for this covariate. eRRR: relative risk ratios. f95 % confidence intervals. gGender was measured by the following item: “What is your gender?” Response options included “male”, “female”, “other (transgender)”. No person responded “other” in the sample used in the present analysis.hIncludes children and or parents. iThe category “economically inactive” includes the long-term sick, unpaid carers and persons living on pensions or benefits, but excludes students. In the present analysis, the status “student” was collapsed with the category “unemployed” under the assumption that, like people who are unemployed, students may be motivated to improve their physical and socioeconomic conditions and therefore are ready to undertake fewer health risks. jTobacco use was not measured. Possible abuse of alcohol or non-medical use of prescription drugs is included