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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors associated with previous HCV testing among PWID (N = 1241 unless otherwise noted)

From: Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization of HCV testing services among PWID in two settings in India

Factors Tested for HCV (%) Univariate Multivariate
OR (95 % CI) P-value Adjusted OR (95 % CI) P-value
Predisposing factor      
Age (years)      
   < 30 45/456 (9.7) 1 <0.001 1 0.208
   ≥ 30 253/785 (32.2) 4.4 (3.1–6.2)   1.4 (0.8–2.3)  
Education      
No formal education 13/115 (11.3) 1 0.001 1 0.022
Formal education (any) 285/1126 (25.4) 2.7 (1.5–4.8)   3.5 (1.2–10.4)  
Marital Status      
Widowed, divorced, separated or never married 112/605 (18.5) 1 <0.001 1 0.004
Currently married 186/636 (29.2) 1.8 (1.4–2.4)   2.4 (1.3–4.5)  
Use of alcohol and/or other non-injecting drugs in last 1 month (N = 1186 )      
No 162/433 (37.4) 1 <0.001 1 0.016
Yes 129/753 (17.1) 0.4 (0.3–0.5)   0.6 (0.4–0.9)  
Enabling factor      
District of residence      
Amritsar 28/507 (5.5) 1 <0.001 1 <0.001
Imphal 270/734 (36.8) 10.1 (6.7–15.2)   4.9 (2.7–8.8)  
Employment status      
Not employed 263/1018 (25.8) 1   1 0.802
Employed 35/223 (15.7) 0.5 (0.4–0.8) 0.002 1.1 (0.6–1.8)  
Below-poverty-level (BPL) statusa      
Not below poverty level 157/821 (19.1) 1 <0.001 1 0.598
Below poverty level 141/420 (33.6) 2.1 (1.6–2.8)   1.1 (0.8–1.6)  
Unprotected sex in last 1 month (N = 1104)      
Always used condoms for sex 131/474 (27.6) 1 0.05 1 0.015
Did not always use condoms for sex 143/630 (22.7)) 0.8 (0.6–1.0)   0.5 (0.3–0.9)  
High mobility in last 1 monthb (N = 1203)      
No 253/1029 (24.5) 1 0.099 1 0.005
Yes 33/174 (18.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)   0.5 (0.3–0.8)  
Sex with female sex worker in last 1 month (N = 1213)      
No 59/1143 (5.2) 1 0.106 1 0.195
Yes 11/70 (15.71) 0.6 (0.3–1.1)   2.1 (0.7–6.8)  
Ever had tattoo or piercing (N = 1212)      
No 238/957 (24.8) 1 0.083 1 0.259
Yes 50/255 (19.6) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)   1.3 (0.8–2.2)  
Need factor      
STI symptoms or STI treatment in last 1 month (N = 1207)      
No 280/1189 (23.5) 1 0.345 1 0.170
Yes 6/18 (33.3) 1.6 (0.6–4.3)   3.9 (0.5–27.2)  
Current injecting drug user (N = 1211)      
No, but formerly 131/512 (25.6) 1 0.163 1 0.525
Yes, currently (injected drugs in last 3 months) 155/699 (22.2) 0.7 (0.6–1.0)   0.9 (0.6–1.3)  
Injecting in a group in last 1 month (N = 1130)      
No 171/731 (23.4) 1 0.009 1 0.619
Yes 67/399 (16.8) 0.7 (0.5–1.1)   1.1 (0.7–1.8)  
Sharing of needles/syringes and other equipment in last 1 month (N = 1144)      
No 214/956 (22.4) 1   1 0.365
Yes 34/188 (18.1) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.179 1.3 (0.7–2.1)  
Duration of injecting drug use (years)      
   ≤ 1 21/172 (12.2) 1   1 0.021
2–5 46/429 (10.7) 0.8 (0.5–1.5) 0.585 0.9 (0.5–1.9) 0.861
6–10 60/239 (25.1) 2.4 (1.4–4.1) 0.001 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 0.491
   ≥ 11 171/401 (42.6) 5.4 (3.3–8.9) <0.001 2.1 (1.0–4.2) 0.050
  1. aBPL status was determined in accordance with the definition used by the Indian government (Planning Commission, Government of India: Report of the expert group to review the methodology for measurement of poverty. June 2014; http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/pov_rep0707.pdf)
  2. bHigh mobility for PWID is defined as spending more than 10 days per month interacting with other PWID at locations outside of the community where one resides