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Table 2 HCV risk factors reported by younger (<30 years) and older (≥30 years) study participants, by place of residence (N = 1241)

From: Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization of HCV testing services among PWID in two settings in India

Reported HCV risk Amritsar (N = 507) Imphal (N = 734) Ratio (≥30 years/ <30 years) Ratio (IMP/AMR)
<30 years ≥30 years <30 years ≥30 years AMR IMP <30 years ≥30 years
(n = 318 ) (n = 189) (n = 138 ) (n = 596 )     
Daily injector in last 1 month 36/311 (11.6) 12/ 188 (6.4) 37/129 (28.7) 178/518 (34.4) 0.6 1.2 2.5 5.4
More than 30 injecting episodes per month in last consecutive 3 months 24/153 (15.7) 10/73 (13.7) 46/104 (44.2) 177/369 (47.9) 0.9 1.1 3.2 3.4
Injecting in a group in last 1 month 134/314 (42.7) 57/188 (30.3) 55/126 (43.7) 153/502 (30.5) 0.7 0.7 1.0 1.0
Sharing of needles/ syringes and other equipment in last 1 month 77/313 (24.6) 32/189 (16.9) 17/126 (13.4) 62/516 (12.0) 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.7
Unprotected sex in last 1 month 186/277 (67.1) 131/167 (78.4) 38/129 (29.5) 275/531 (51.8) 1.2 1.8 0.4 0.7
Sex with female sex worker in last 1 month 42/314 (13.4) 13/188 (6.9) 4/133 (3.0) 11/578 (1.9) 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.3
STI symptoms or STI treatment in last 1 month 10/315 (3.2) 3/189 (1.6) 1/132 (0.8) 4/571 (0.7) 0.5 0.8 0.2 0.4
Use of alcohol and/or other non-injecting drugs in last 1 month 245/315 (77.8) 177/189 (77.8) 77/133 (57.9) 284/579 (49.1) 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6
Opioid substitution therapy non-adherence in last 1 month 71/315 (22.5) 30/189 (15.8) 71/132 (53.8) 348/580 (60.0) 0.7 1.1 2.4 3.8
High mobility in last 1 montha 26/307 (8.5) 10/187 (5.3) 28/132 (21.2) 110/577 (19.1) 0.6 0.9 2.5 3.6
Mother, father or spouse ever tested HCV-positive 1/314 (0.3) 0/189 (0) 3/131 (2.3) 18/572 (3.1) 0.0 1.3 7.7 -
Ever had tattoo or piercing 102/312 (32.7) 46/188 (24.5) 35/131 (26.7) 72/581 (12.4) 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.5
Ever had transfusion of blood or blood components 18/314 (5.7) 15/189 (7.9) 1/132 (0.8) 18/579 (3.1) 1.4 3.9 0.1 0.4
Ever had medical or dental surgery, or hemodialysis 13/315 (4.1) 25/189 (13.2) 1/131 (0.8) 16/582 (2.7) 3.2 3.4 0.2 0.2
Ever had needle stick injury 0/315 1/188 (0.5) 3/130 (2.3) 10/573 (1.7) - 0.7 - 3.4
  1. aHigh mobility for PWID is defined as spending more than 10 days per month interacting with other PWID at locations outside of the community where one resides